You can receive fame for almost every crafting and combat activity in Albion Online. It's used for levelling up your adventurer level, as well as for keeping track of your progress in-game.
While fame is uniform score, there are four different fame sources: killing players, NPCs, crafting and trade. You can check how much you've gained from each in your personal statistics.
Unlocking destiny board Edit
While fame is uniform score, every activity also counts towards some achievement that allows you to unlock or upgrade related branch of tree, for example: you are processing steel bars, now fame gained from it counts both towards unlocking new level of steel smithing, as well as to unlocking uncommon steel bars. Fame requirements (amount and source) of every segment in destiny board are listed on related branch.
Fame gain Edit
For every tier of enemies killed or resources gathered/processed/made into items there is fixed amount of fame gained. For items it's sum of all materials used in crafting.